Posted by: mel | December 4, 2009

Chinese Indonesian

Wapedia | accessed 4 December 2009

Chinese Indonesians (simplified Chinese: 印度尼西亚华人; traditional Chinese: 印度尼西亞華人; pinyin: Yìndùníxīyà Huárén, Hakka: Thong ngin, Min: Teng lang, IndonesianTionghoa Indonesia, or (derisively) Cina totok) are ethnically Chinese people living in Indonesia, as a result of centuries of overseas Chinese migration.

Chinese Indonesian people are diverse in their origins, timing and circumstances of immigration to Indonesia, and level of ties to China. Many trace their origins to the southern parts of China, such as FujianGuangdong and Hainan provinces.

Broadly speaking, there were three waves of immigration of ethnic Chinese to Southeast Asia in general and Indonesia in particular. The first wave was spurred by trading activities dating back to the time of Zheng He‘s voyage in the early 15th century, the second wave around the time of the Opium War, and the third wave around the first half of the 20th century.

Chinese Indonesians whose ancestors immigrated in the first and second waves, and have thus become creolised or huan-na(in Hokkien) by marriage and assimilation, are called Peranakan Chinese. The more recent Chinese immigrants and those who are still culturally Chinese are called Cina Totok.

Most Chinese who migrated to Indonesia came as traders or labourers. Colonial policies made it difficult for Chinese to acquire land, and the only region with a significant Chinese farmer population was West Kalimantan. The largest populations of Chinese Indonesians today are in the cities of Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, Pekan Baru, Semarang, Pontianak, Makassar, Palembang,Bangka, Belitung and Bandung.

Contents:
1. History
2. Geographic distribution
3. Culture
4. Institutions
5. See also
6. References
7. Notes
8. Further reading
9. External links

Chinese Indonesian
印度尼西亞華人
印度尼西亚华人
Yìndùníxīyà Huárén
Total population
1,739,000 (2000 census[1]Note: it has been suggested that these figures are a significant under-estimate due to reluctance by many to identify themselves as ethnically Chinese. [2]
Regions with significant populations
Jakarta (460,000), West Kalimantan (352,900), East Java (191,000), Riau (176,900), Central Java (165,500), West Java (163,300), Bangka-Belitung(103,700), Banten (90,000) [1]
Languages
IndonesianMandarinHakkaMin Nan (HokkienTeochew), HsinghuaCantonese, and other local and Chinese dialects [3]
Religion
Predominantly BuddhismConfucianism with Taoism. Minority Christianity and Islam[4]
Related ethnic groups
Overseas Chinese


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